Chapter 1: Introducing systems approaches

Reynolds, M. and Holwell, S. (2020) 'Chapter 1: Introducing systems approaches'. Systems approaches to making change: a practical guide 2nd Edn. pp. 1-24. London: Open University and Springer



The five approaches covered in Systems Approaches to Making Change – System Dynamics (SD) Viable Systems Model (VSM), Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA: with cognitive mapping), Soft Systems Methodology (SSM), and Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) – are introduced. The rationale for their inclusion is described based on their (i) common historic emergence in dealing with complex situations of change and uncertainty, (ii) shared potential and actual constructivist use of the systems idea, and (iii) pedigree of adaptability and versatility of tools in working with other approaches to making change.

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